As Russian missiles fell on Ukrainian cities, another battle erupted online and over the airwaves.
Moscow intensified its efforts to control the narrative in news media, while large tech companies Alphabet Inc’s Google and Meta Platforms Inc’s Facebook placed restrictions on Russia’s state-controlled media outlets in Ukraine.
Russia announced Friday that it would partially limit Facebook. This was Meta’s response to a government request to halt the independent fact-checking by several Russian state media outlets. Twitter announced that its service was being restricted to some Russian users on Saturday.
Users reported that Facebook Messenger was slow to load images and videos after the slowdown. Twitter was slow on mobile devices – it has been subject to a punitive slowdown ever since March. In recent days, many state websites, including kremlin.ru (Kremlin website), have also experienced outages.
The standoff represents the latest in a series of confrontations with Russia for tech companies. Platforms are at risk of being placed under restrictions by the government in Russia as it seeks censor dissidents and protect state-run media.
Major social, video, and livestreaming platforms, such as Facebook, TikTok, Twitch, and Twitch, are under increasing pressure to stop spreading misleading footage and falsehoods about the conflict on their platforms.
This latest Russian clash with tech comes just days before Moscow set a deadline for major foreign tech companies that they must comply with a new law. The law requires them to establish official representation in the country. This could make it easier for Russia to regulate platforms. It follows a series o fines and slowdowns that were imposed on platforms by the Russian government for failing to remove illegal content.
Roskomnadzor, Russia’s communications regulator, published an online list that showed only Apple, Spotify, and Viber having met all three requirements of law by Sunday 2145 GMT. They include: Registering an account with Roskomnadzor, giving users a way of communicating directly with the company and setting up a representative.
Russia threatened to ban advertising from companies if they didn’t comply with its demands this month. Russian officials said that there could be further restrictions, including speed slowdowns and outright blocks.
The burden of big tech companies is also to weigh the demands of Ukrainian officials and sympathizers around the world who have asked them to expel Russian users out of their services to stop the spread false information while also preserving access for dissidents to crucial digital tools.
“Mark Zuckerberg, while creating Metaverse – Russia destroys real life in Ukraine!” We ask that you ban access to @facebookapp & @instagram from Russia, as long as tanks & missiles attack our kindergartens & hospitals!” Mykhailo Fedorov, Ukraine’s Vice Prime Minister, wrote on Twitter on Sunday.
Meta’s global affairs head Nick Clegg tweeted Sunday in response to the demands that he turn off Instagram and Facebook Russia. This would “silence significant expression at a crucial moment.”
It was obvious that others in the tech industry were facing similar problems. Pavel Durov, founder of Telegram, said that after receiving feedback from users, the company would not restrict certain channels for spreading false information just minutes after he posted on Sunday that Telegram would be considering limiting some channels.
As activists and politicians demanded that the Kremlin-sponsored outlets be demonetized or banned, the activities of state-controlled media like RT and Sputnik have been a major source of conflict between Moscow, Russia, and major tech platforms.
Today’s businesses operate in an environment of unprecedented risk, uncertainty, and complexity. Many struggle to achieve the results they desire. Organisations increasingly rely on a combination of ‘rule-based and’mindful based’ methods of working to address this.
Organisations can develop rule-based practices to improve control and reliability of their operations. A rule-based system can be used to ensure consistency and reduce the chance of human error.
A’mindful’ approach allows humans to have more control over their priorities and to use their perceptions, cognition, and flexible thinking.
People can use their knowledge, imagination, and expertise to solve problems. This flexibility allows for innovation and pragmatism depending on the situation.
How can we activate a mindful approach when there is a performance-threatening incident? Cranfield’s research team examined five major UK companies in different sectors, including financial services, power generation, and high-tech R&D (for our ‘Roads to Resilience’ report).
We used key projects from each organization as case studies to examine how each company responded in the face of major incidents.
Three different responses were identified:
Figure 1: Mindfulness activation modes
The first approach we called the “Traditional” approach. This is when an organization uses a predominantly rule-based approach.
Our observations showed that this operation style was less able to adapt to unexpected problems and had a slower response time than other styles. Relying on pre-existing rules made it harder to find a solution that was tailored to your needs.
We saw shifts in operating styles when problems occurred in the second mode, Infusion. Expert judgement was encouraged and different working styles were recommended.
It might also mean deploying additional resources to deal with the situation. Teams of cross-functional experts, who are emotionally and structurally unaffected by the unfolding incident, could be brought in to help. This allowed others to continue contributing to normal operations.
Entrepreneurial is the last option for dealing with uncertainty. It involves creating and maintaining permanent mindful capabilities. This was evident in technology R&D projects, which deliberately used minimal rules and procedures while allowing decision-makers to have relative freedom in their work methods.
Uncertainty was accepted and seen as an opportunity to innovate. The critical incidents were seen as opportunities to learn and improve. There was no’switch’ from one mode to the next. These are difficult skills to acquire and cultivate.
What does this all mean for managers? Managers know that one size does not fit all. The approach of an organisation must be adapted to the level of uncertainty and complexity within the business. A rule-based approach is best suited for low-uncertainty and low-complexity environments.
As uncertainty increases, however, the benefits of a flexible and’mindful” approach increase. This requires careful nurturing. Parachuting in additional resources could send the message that the problem is’someone else’s problem.
Only if decision-makers are able to continue to supervise day-to-day operations can a sanction be made for a mindful response.
The pure mindfulness approach is the best for high-uncertainty work. However, it can be difficult to sustain as failures can lead to complacency.
Are your organisation’s rules sufficient to ensure a secure work environment? Are you able to benefit from the flexibility that mindfulness allows? You might consider challenging the limitations of what you “should” do and instead think about what you might be capable of doing.
In my previous article, Affecting Business Cases I mentioned “I’m Ok. – You’re OK”1 by Thomas A. Harris. This classic text on Transactional Analysis was written in the 1960s and is one of two books that fundamentally changed how I view life, family, and relationships.
Transactional analysis is a way to understand the mind and why it does what it does. It also teaches us how to stop doing what we don’t want. Eric Berne is the one who developed Transactional Analysis. His classic book “Games People Play The Psychology of Human Relationships2” (though it is not easy to read) is also a classic.
Eric Berne, a Transactional Analyst, developed the famous Parent, Adult, Child’ theory. This theory states that every person is composed of these three states and that communication or interaction with others is done from one of them. Individuals can shift with varying degrees to one state.
Thomas A. Harris said, “These states of being aren’t roles, but psychological realities.”
Parent means “that you are in the exact same state of mind that one of your parents (or a substitute parent) used to be and that you respond as they would with the same postures, gestures, vocabulary, emotions, etc.”
Adult refers to ‘you have just made an independent objective appraisal of the situation. Child refers to ‘your reaction is the same as when you were a little boy or girl’.
Harris1 claims that Transactional Analysis constructs four ‘life positions’ with respect to oneself.
I’m not OK – You are OK
I’m not OK – You are Not OK
I’m OK, You’re Not OK
I’m OK – You are OK
The book’s main purpose is to help people understand how their life position influences their communication (transactions) when they interact through one of their Parent, Adult or Child ego states.
Children will see adults as strong, big, and competent, but they will see themselves small, weak, and making mistakes. So, I’m Not OK – You’re OK.
Use of words like’stupid’ and ‘naughty are typical Parent characteristics. If an adult interacts with an infant using these Parental words’, the child’s life position could change from I’m OK – Your’re OK to II’m OK – You Are Not OK (well that’s how I understand it all). What life position do you currently find yourself in after reading this far?
It’s all fascinating (to me anyway) and it makes me think about how we interact with stakeholders on projects. We know that stakeholders can be any person who has, or perceives they have, an influence on a project.
We also know that people will have different opinions about the project and the changes it brings. Some stakeholders will be supportive of the project while others will be more skeptical.
Can understanding Transactional Analysis (the Parent, Adult, and Child ego states, and the four life positions, help us create a more cooperative, cooperative, and harmonious environment for a project? It can, I believe.
Let’s look at a few scenarios to help you understand.
You are the Project Manager for a project in phase/gate review. Your Project Board/Sponsoring Group will approve the continuation of the project into the next phase by reviewing the updated Business Case.
While you have a good relationship to the members of Project Board/Sponsoring Group, you also know that your personal information will be scrutinized. You are confident that you can answer any questions that may come your way. Do you sound familiar?
Which of the following ‘life positions’ would your answer be? Let’s assume you are in I’m Ok – You’re OK as long as you feel prepared and some of Project Boar’s decision makers.
It is important to realize that there are many mistakes you can make when setting up your business marketing campaign. Here are some issues to be aware of.
Forgetting the 80:20 Rule
When running your promotional campaign, it is important to remember the 80/20 rule. This is easy to grasp once you get down to it.
The promotional bracket should not be used for more than 80% of the content you create and publish. It should be entertaining, interesting, or other ways to connect with your audience.
This is an important part of social success. People make the mistake of constantly selling products and services through social media. This will quickly bore your customers.
Failure to Connect Your Campaign
This is a problem with the mindset people have when setting up their marketing campaigns. It is common to view different elements of your promotional campaigns as distinct.
You might then focus on your website and social media. Instead, think of it as a huge puzzle that can be assembled neatly.
This will help you create a stronger marketing campaign that delivers the results you desire. It can help you to always lead your customers to make a purchase.
Next, ensure that you don’t ignore reviews about your products or services. This is especially important if you have negative reviews. Negative reviews are often noticed by customers.
More than 80% of customers polled said they would only purchase a product or a service online if they read different reviews.
You can check reviews at your usual places and also look for mentions of your company on social media. Customers are now more aware than ever about the power that social media can provide and are willing to use it.
Avoid Tech Problems
You should also be aware of the tech issues that can impact your promotion campaign’s success. You might have spent a lot of time creating an ad that leads customers to your website.
The ad is useless if the website has a problem that causes pages to not load properly or don’t load fast enough.
We hope that this helps you to understand and avoid the most common problems with your promotional campaign. You can ensure that your company is more successful and that your business gets the attention it deserves by taking the right steps.
Project management has been a profession that I have never felt more passionate or optimistic. Whether it’s right or wrong, I feel project management has not received the recognition it deserves as a business-critical skill.
Consider this: How many of you have ever completed a careers questionnaire? How many of your experiences have you had as project managers?
We are at the tipping point where project management will be recognized. Let me tell you why.
A project management report is something I like (some might say a little too much), but three recent ones really highlighted the importance of project planning:
World Economic Forum (WEF), Future of Jobs Report 20201
National Infrastructure Strategy2
Lessons from Major Projects & Programmes, House of Commons Public Account Committee3
Project managers are a role that is expected to be in high demand over the next five year according to the WEF1. The UK Government has committed to a large program of infrastructure investment with PS600 billion of public investment planned over the next five years.
It is clear that projects cannot be delivered without sufficient skilled people. This is why I believe we have reached the tipping point.
I refer to Lessons from Major Projects and Programmes (House of Commons Public Account Committee3) because it highlights key areas of project management that, when broken down, are all people-related.
Although this report is focused on major UK Government projects, I have found that they are applicable across all industries.
Robust investment decisions (business case) – “The benefits of proper scrutiny, development of programmes could be lost in a rush for delivery, and spending decisions could not be justified.”
Communication is essential for project delivery.
Check and challenge – “Programmes that have significant issues have passed through Gateways even though they were rated amber/red”
Planning – “The problems that major programmes face is not only for the public sector. Research shows that around 75% exceed their budget and schedule, even when they are included in the private sector.”
Project leadership – “Skills as well as leadership remain a persistent problem when delivering major projects.”
These skills are not exclusive to any industry. It is crucial to have the right skills to execute projects.
Failure is not an option. It is not possible to have people who can deliver projects. It is not possible to ignore the importance of project management.
I am often challenged about the need for project management or elements of project managing (such as quality, risk, etc.) and I pose the following question to the objector:
“Are You willing to take the risk of not doing it?”
This question is for every organization that doesn’t see project management as a crucial skill.
“Are your willing to accept the risk to your business if you don’t do project management effectively and efficiently?”
It doesn’t matter if it’s infrastructure or technology adoption, it’s all projects.
Ian Clarkson is a PPM Consultant and Author at QA Ltd. He is passionate about helping organisations improve their PPM delivery and encouraging the next generation PPM professionals. When he isn’t helping organisations transform, he enjoys reading the latest articles and researching on the topic. Perhaps he should just read more!
Amazon EMR is a web-based service that uses a hosted Hadoop framework and runs on the web-scale infrastructures of EC2 or S3.
EMR allows researchers, developers, data analysts, and businesses to quickly and economically process large amounts of data.
EMRuses Apache Hadoop is its distributed data processing engine. It is an open-source Java software that supports distributed, data-intensive applications on large clusters using commodity hardware.
Ideal for large data volumes that require fast and efficient processing
Let the data crunch and analysis take center stage without worrying about the time-consuming setup, management or tuning for Hadoop clusters or the compute power
Can help with data-intensive tasks such as web indexing and data mining, log file analyses, machine learning, financial analysis and bioinformatics research, etc
Provides web service interface to launch clusters and monitor cluster processing-intensive computation
This batch-processing framework measures the common processing time duration in minutes to days. If the use case is to have processing in real time or within minutes Apache Spark and Storm would be a better choice.
EMR seamlessly supports Reserved, Spot, or On-Demand Instances
EMR launches all cluster nodes in the same EC2 Availability Zone. This improves performance and provides a higher data access rate.
EMR supports several EC2 instance types, including Standard, High CPU and High Memory, Cluster Compute and High I/O. Instances have memory-to-processor ratios that are suitable for most general-purpose purposes.
High CPU instances have a proportionally greater CPU resource than memory (RAM), and are well-suited for compute intensive applications.
High Memory instances provide large memory sizes for high throughput application
Cluster Compute instances have a proportionally high CPU and increased network performance. They are well-suited for High Performance Compute applications and other network-bound demanding applications.
High Storage instances provide 48 TB storage on 24 disks. They are ideal for applications that need sequential access to large data sets, such as data warehouse and log processing.
EMR charges are assessed on hourly increments, i.e. Once the cluster is up and running, charges will apply for the entire hour
EMR integrates to CloudTrail to record AWS API CallsNOTE: This topic is primarily for Solution Architect Professional & Analytics – Speciality Exam Only
Amazon EMR uses Hadoop software, which is industry-proven and fault-tolerant, as its data processing engine
Hadoop is an open-source Java software that supports distributed data-intensive applications on large clusters using commodity hardware.
Hadoop divides the data into multiple subsets, and assigns each one to more than one EC2 instance. If an EC2 instance fails processing a subset of data it can be used to retrieve the results from another Amazon EC2 instance.
EMR is composed of Master node, one of more slave nodesMaster NodeEMR currently doesn’t support automatic failover or master state recovery.
If the master node is down, the EMR cluster will be shut down and the job must be re-executed.
Slave nodes – Core nodes, Task nodesCore nodeshost persistent data using Hadoop Distributed File System HDFS and run Hadoop tasks
In an existing cluster, can be increased
Hadoop tasks can only be run by task nodes
In an existing cluster, it is possible to increase or decrease the size of the group.
EMR is fault-tolerant for slave failures, and continues job execution if the slave node goes down.
EMR currently does not automatically provision another node for the transfer of failed slaves.
EMR supports Bootstrap actions, which allows users to run custom set up prior to the execution.
This can be used to configure and install software before running the clusterEMR security
EMR cluster begins with different s
AWS Elastic Load Balancingr – ELB
Elastic load balancer allows traffic to be automatically distributed across multiple EC2 instances.
ELB is the single point of contact for the clients.
ELB allows for transparency and increases application availability. It allows multiple EC2 instances to be added or removed across one or more AZs without disrupting the flow of information.
ELB benefitsis a distributed system which is fault-tolerant, actively monitored, and can be used to provide many benefits
This article simplifies the complex task of managing, maintaining, scaling load balancers
Assists in the first line defense against attacks on the network
The EC2 instances can outsource encryption and decryption (SSL Termination) so they can concentrate on their main work.
Auto Scaling integration available, which ensures sufficient back-end capacity to meet different traffic levels
They are designed to be resilient to any single failure
By default, Elastic Load Balancingr routes each request to the registered instance with smallest load.
ELB automatically redirects traffic to running healthy EC2 instances if an EC2 instance goes down. ELB will restore traffic to an EC2 instance that has failed.
Load balancers work only in AZs within a given region.
Application Load Balancing – ALB
Refer to the Blog Post @ Application Load Balancingr
Network Load Balancing – NLB
Refer to the Blog Post @ Network Load Balancingr
Gateway Load Balancingr – GWLB
Refer to Blog Post at Gateway Load Balancer
Classic Load Balancing vs. Application Load Balancing vs. Network Loadbalaler
Refer Blog Post @ Classic Load Balancer vs Application Load Balancer vs Network Load Balancer
Elastic Load Balancing Features
The following ELB key concepts are applicable to all Elastic Load Balancing types
Each ELB is assigned and configured with a default capacity.
ELB Controller is the service that stores all configurations, monitors the load balancer, and manages the capacity to handle client requests.
The controller service adjusts the load balancers as the traffic profile changes. This scales equally in all AZs.
ELB can increase its capacity by using either more resources (scale up-resources with higher performance characteristics) and/or more individual resources (scale out).
AWS handles the scaling and management of the ELB capacity. This scaling is distinct from the scaling of EC2 instances to whom the ELB routes its request. Auto Scaling is used to manage this scaling.
Depending on traffic profile changes, the time it takes to bring Elastic Load Balancencing to scale can vary from 1 to 7 min.
Elastic Load Balancing creates an Elastic Load Balancing node in the availability zone when an Availability Zone has been enabled for the load-balancer.
NOTE: Pre-warming is not included in AWS documentation
ELB works best when there is a steady increase in traffic
AWS can scale automatically and handle the vast majority of use cases
In certain situations, however, it is recommended to contact AWS support to have the load balancedr “pre-warmed”.
AWS will Pre-warm the ELB by configuring the loadbalancer to have the right level of capacity based upon the expected traffic.
AWS would need information about the start, end, and expected request rates per second, along with the total request/response.
ELB is automatically scaled according to traffic profile.
The Elastic Load Balancing service will scale the load balancer’s Domain Name System (DNS), updating the record so that new resources have their IP addresses registered in DNS.
The DNS record created includes a Time-to-Live setting of 60 seconds
EC2 Elastic Block Storage – EBS
Elastic Block Storage – EBS is a block-level storage volume that is highly available, reliable and durable. It can be attached to an instance running.
EBS is recommended as a primary storage device for data that needs frequent and granular updates, such as for e.g. Running a filesystem or database
An EBS volume acts like an unformatted, raw block device that can be attached one EC2 instance at a given time
EBS volume is independent of the instance’s running life.
An EBS volume can be attached to any instance in the same Availability Zone. It can also be used as a physical hard drive.
EBS volumes can be created in a particular AZ and attached to any instances within that AZ. You can make a snapshot of the volume and then restore it to a new volume.
EBS volumes can be back up by creating a snapshot, which is stored at S3. EBS volumes can also be created using a snapshot. A snapshot can be attached and used to create another instance in the same region.
Snapshots can be copied to other regions and restored to new volumes. This makes it easier to use multiple AWS regions to expand geographically, migrate data centers, or recover from disasters.
EBS volumes can be encrypted using the EBS encryption feature. All data at rest, disk I/O and snapshots are encrypted.
Encryption takes place on the EC2 instance, which provides encryption of data in transit from the EC2 volume to the EBS volume.
You can dynamically increase or decrease the size of the provisioned IOPS capacities, or change the type of volume on live production volumes.
General Purpose (SSD), volumes support upto 10,000 16000 IOPS, 160 250 MB/s throughput, and Provisioned (SSD), volumes support upto 20,000 64000IOPS and 320 1000MB/s throughput.
Data AvailabilityEBS volume is automatically replicated within an Availability Zone to protect data from loss caused by failure of any one hardware component.
Data persistence persists independent of the life span of an EC2 instance
It persists even if an instance is restarted or stopped.
Root EBS volume is deleted by default on Instance termination. However, the behavior can be modified using the DeleteOnTermination flag
All volumes attached to the device are retained by default until they are deleted.
Data encryption can be done with the EBS encryption feature
EBS encryption uses AES-256 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard algorithms (AES-256), and an Amazon-managed key infrastructure.
The server hosting the EC2 instance encrypts data-in-transit between the EC2 instance and EBS storage.
Snapshots of encrypted EBS volumes can be automatically encrypted
SnapshotsEBS allows you to take snapshots (backups of any EBS volume) and then write a copy to Amazon S3, where the data is redundantly stored in multiple Availability Zones
Snapshots can also be used to create new volumes, increase their size, or replicate data across Availability zones or regions
Snapshots are incremental backups that store only the data that has changed since the last snapshot was taken.
Snapshots can be smaller than volume because the data is compressed before being saved as S3
Snapshots are saved incrementally. However, the snapshot deletion process is designed to ensure that you only retain the most recent snapshot to restore the volume.
Refer blog post @ EBS Volume Types
EBS Volume Creation
AWS Elastic Beanstalk
AWS Elastic Beanstalk allows you to quickly deploy and manage your applications in the AWS Cloud, without worrying about the infrastructure.
Elastic Beanstalk simplifies management without limiting choice or control.
Elastic Beanstalk allows for automated infrastructure management and code deployment by uploading.
Provisioning of capacity
Elastic Beanstalk automatically launches a new environment after an application has been uploaded. It configures AWS resources to run the code. Once the environment has been launched, it can then be managed and used for new applications.
Elastic Beanstalk makes it possible to access all AWS resources, i.e. EC2 instances can also be SSHed into
Elastic Beanstalk gives developers and system administrators an easy and fast way to deploy and maintain applications without worrying about AWS infrastructure.
CloudFormation, using templates, is a better option if the internal AWS resources to be used are known and fine-grained control is neededElastic Beanstalk ComponentsApplicationAn Elastic Beanstalk application is a logical collection of Elastic Beanstalk components, including environments, versions, and environment configurations.
Application VersionAn application version is a specific, labeled version of deployable code that can be used to build a web app.
There are many versions of applications. Each application version points to an S3 object.
Multiple versions of an Application can be deployed to test differences and help rollback any version if there are issues
EnvironmentAn environment refers to a version that is uploaded onto AWS resources
A single version of an application can be run in one environment, but the same version can be used across multiple environments.
Elastic Beanstalk creates an environment and provides the resources necessary to run the application version that you have specified.
Environment Configuration. An environment configuration is a collection or settings that describe how an environment and its resources behave.
Elastic Beanstalk applies changes to resources when they are updated. It deletes resources and deploys new resources depending on the change.
Configuration TemplateA configuration template can be used as a starting point to create unique environments.
Elastic Beanstalk ArchitectureElastic Beanstalk environment needs a platform, environment, and type of environment
Environment tier determines whether Elastic Beanstalk provisions resources to support a web application that handles HTTP(S) requests or a web application that handles background-processing tasks
Web Environment TierA web server tier is an environment tier that processes web requests.
AWS resources for a web environment include an Elastic load balancer, an Auto Scaling group and one or more EC2 instances
Every Environment has a CNAME URL pointing at the ELB, aliased Route 53 to ELB URL
Each EC2 server instance running the application uses a container kind. This defines the infrastructure topology as well as the software stack.
The host manager (HM), a software component, runs on every EC2 server instance. It is responsible for Deploying the application
Using the API or the command line to aggregate events and metrics for retrieval via console, API, or command line
Generating instance-level event
Monitor the application log files for any critical errors
Monitoring the application server
Patching instance components
Rotating the log files of your application and publishing them to S3
Worker Environment Tier A worker tier is an environment tier that runs background jobs through its web application.
AWS resources that are created for a worker environment level include an Auto Scaling group.
AWS Elastic Beanstalk Vs OpsWorks Vs CloudFormation
AWS offers many options for IT infrastructure provisioning and management. These options range from simple setup to high-level granular control.
AWS Elastic Beanstalk
AWS Elastic Beanstalk, a higher-level service, allows you to deploy quickly with minimal management effort a web- or worker-based environment using EC2, Docker using ECS and Elastic Load Balancing, Auto Scaling. RDS, CloudWatch, etc.
Elastic Beanstalk is the fastest way to get your application up and running on AWS. It’s perfect for developers who want code to be deployed and not have to worry about the infrastructure.
Elastic Beanstalk allows you to quickly deploy and run applications in cloud. It integrates with developer tools, providing a one-stop solution for managing the entire lifecycle of an application.
Elastic Beanstalk requires minimal configuration points and will help deploy, monitor and handle the elasticity/scalability of the application
A user doesn’t need to do more than write code and configure Elastic BeanstalkAWS OpsWorks.
AWS OpsWorks simplifies software configuration, deployment, scaling, monitoring, and monitoring.
OpsWorks is recommended for managing your infrastructure using a configuration management software such as Chef.
Opsworks allows you to create custom chef recipes. It also uses self healing and works with layers
Opsworks is a deployment management service that helps with applications using Chef recipes. However, it is not meant to manage scaling of the application out-of-the-box. This must be handled explicitlyAWS cloudFormation
AWS CloudFormation allows you to model, provision, and control a wide range AWS resources, from a single EC2 instance up to a multi-tiered, multi-region application.
CloudFormation, a low-level service, provides granular control over provisioning and managing AWS resources using templates.
CloudFormation templates allow version control of the infrastructure, making deployment easy and repeatable.
CloudFormation can support infrastructure needs for many types of applications including legacy applications, existing enterprise applications, and containers-based solutions (including those made using AWS Elastic Beanstalk).
CloudFormation can be used to deploy applications and provision any type of AWS resource.
CloudFormation is designed as a complement to Elastic Beanstalk or OpsWorks.
CloudFormation with Elastic BeanstalkCloudFormation supports Elastic Beanstalk application environments as one of the AWS resource types.
This allows you to create and manage AWS Elastic Beanstalk-hosted applications, as well as an RDS database to store application data. You can also add any other AWS resource to the group, in addition to RDS instances.
CloudFormation with OpsWorksCloudFormation also supports OpsWorks and OpsWorks components (stacks, layers, instances, and applications) can be modeled inside CloudFormation templates, and provisioned as CloudFormation stacks.
This allows you to document, version manage, and share your OpsWorks configuration.
You can create either a single or a combined CloudFormation template to provision OpsWorks components, and other AWS resources like VPC and Elastic Load Balancingr AWS Certification Exam Practice Question
Questions are collected via the Internet. The answers are marked according to my knowledge and understanding (which may differ from yours).
AWS services are constantly updated and the answers and questions may be out of date soon. So make sure to research accordingly.
AWS exam questions are not regularly updated to keep up with AWS.